Bash bug will leave you shell shocked.

A vulnerability has been found in the Bash Unix shell. The vulnerability arises from a bug in the way that Bash processes environment variables. If an attacker is able to pass environment variable content to a network service that calls bash, they may be able to achieve arbitrary remote code execution on the target system.

This has potentially severe implications for any network service that runs bash as an interpreter.

  • CGI scripts on web servers can be leveraged to achieve remote code execution through HTTP requests.
  • Systems running SSH may also be vulnerable. By leveraging AcceptEnv, TERM or SSH_ORIGINAL_COMMAND environment variables, remote code execution may be achieved on affected systems.
  • Other network services may also be impacted (e.g. SMTP servers)

This has widespread severe security implications, as potentially any Linux/Unix system can be compromised remotely.


  • Upgrade bash on all Linux/Unix systems immediately
  • Temporarily firewall any Internet-facing SSH servers or web servers running shell-based CGI scripts until the bash patch can be applied.
  • For appliances, software appliances and embedded systems, contact the vendor to seek advice about patching.
  • Cry softly into your pillow
  • Run away from your job
  • Hit the pub.

More to follow…

TrueCrypt Fallout: Early hours

It may appear that 2014 is shaping up as ‘Year of the Crypto Catastrophe’. Closely following Heartbleed we are now monitoring the unfolding and curious events surrounding the sudden shutdown of the TrueCrypt project.

TrueCrypt (or TC) has long been a ‘go to’ open source encryption solution to provide a quick solution for protecting data.

Whilst details are very sketchy, it would appear that the TC binaries have been updated to only allow reading from TC volumes, with a warning that TC is no longer safe.

Asterisk’s recommendations at this point are:

  • Do not download or update TC right now! (version 7.1a seems to be the most recent version released before the current incident)
  • Determine your organisation’s current exposure: assess usage of TC, search for any TC volumes in your fleet (note that TC volumes can be hidden)
  • Take steps to ensure any data secured by TC is backed up in a manner which ensures you can recover the contents
  • Assess your data encryption requirements: why are you using crypto, what are you protecting data from (casual observer, laptop/drive theft, targeted information theft), what platforms & what functionality is required?
  • Assess alternate solutions, and prepare a strategy to move
  • Determine the appropriate trigger and time frame for your organisation to change encryption solution

Until more concrete facts emerge, we have captured some of the timeline of this very intriguing story as it unfolded.

Approximately 5 hours ago (3:30am West Australian Time) this tweet landed:

thegrugq then provides an archive of the page:

Some information about the new binary that is available on the TC website lands:

Speculation about what’s going on starts to happen:

and investigation around what actually got uploaded starts:

The investigation continues:

Another diff:

Confirmation that the new binaries were signed by the real PGP key:

What happens when you try to install the new TC:


xabean links to github to better highlight the changes:

Archer has some great advice:

News articles begin:

Confirmation on the new functionality:

Luckily, thegrugq already gave us information about TC alternatives:

and now the speculation has started:

With an interesting  line in the new 7.2 code pointed out by a guy on IRC:…7.2#diff-889688bf127e7a198f80cbcec61c9571L16

Now, this is still early days, so we’re expecting this news to change as more information starts to surface.



KrebsonSecurity did an interview with Matthew Green (the guy who is heading the audit project for TrueCrypt) and had some additional information.  He still plans to continue the audit.


And looks like this is the best explanation we are going to have around the TrueCrypt situation:



Say ‘Hi’ to the SAMM Self Assessment Tool

Asterisk are happy to be releasing their first public beta of the SAMM Self Assessment Tool, or SSA. One of our favourite OWASP projects is the OpenSAMM project, and for those who haven’t seen OpenSAMM before, it is a framework to help organisations to evaluate their current software security practices, and build measurable targets and plans for improving these practices.

Part of OpenSAMM includes conducting assessments (you can’t manage what you can’t measure right?). The OpenSAMM methodology categorises these assessments as either Lightweight or Detailed. SSA aims to provide a very simple way to perform this Lightweight assessment, and compare your current status with some pre-canned target states. And literally, that’s it.

We’ve used this tool on a number of engagements to quickly gauge where an organisation is, and it’s certainly helped with figuring out the ‘current state’ of an organisations software security maturity.

There’s currently two different ways you can use SSA:

  1. You can visit and complete the checklist directly. You don’t even have to save your assessment anywhere if you don’t want. On the other hand, if you want to store your results, there’s a few ways to do that, such as in your cookies or online in a database. For online storage you need to Sign Up, either with a username and password (please don’t re-use your passwords folks), or you can sign in with a Google account too.
  2. Clone a copy of the Rails app and spin it up somewhere locally. We recognised quite early on that some organisations may feel uncomfortable with tracking this sort of information on the Internet, so, if you have the capability, sure, feel free to clone the repository locally and do what you wish.

SSA is being released under an MIT license, and our intent is to give it back to the OWASP community for further enhancements. We have a high level list of proposed features available on the GitHub page, but currently they’re being developed on a ‘When Christian Has Time and is Sober’ timescale. SSA forms part of our Toolkit, of which we’re slowly publishing other tools and utilities too. So watch this space!

As always, we’re really interested in your feedback, queries, concerns, issues. So feel free to send us queries via @asteriskinfosec or as Issues on the GitHub project.

Fuzzing and Sqlmap inside CSRF-protected locations (Part 2)

- @dave_au

This is part 2 of a post on fuzzing and sqlmap’ing inside web applications with CSRF protection. In part 1 I provided a walkthough for setting up a Session Handling Rule and macro in Burp suite for use with Burp’s Intruder. In this part, I will walkthrough a slightly different scenario where we use Burp as a CSRF-protection-bypass harness for sqlmap.

Sqlmap inside CSRF

A lot of the process from part 1 of the post is common to part 2. I will only run through the key differences.

Again, you’ll need to define a Session Handling Rule, containing a macro sequence that Burp will use to login to the application, and navigate to the page that you need.

The first real difference is in the definition of scope for the session handling rule. Instead of setting the scope to “Intruder” and “Include all URLs”, you’ll need to set the scope to be “Proxy” and a custom scope containing the URL that you are going to be sqlmapping.


There is a note to “use with caution” on the tool selection for Proxy. It is not too hard to see why – if you scoped the rule too loosely for Proxy, each request could trigger a whole new session login. And then I guess the session login could trigger a session login, and then the universe would collapse into itself. Bad news. You have been warned.

Once the session handling rule is in place, find an in-scope request that you made previously, and construct it into a sqlmap command line.



In this example, I’m attempting an injection into a RESTful URL, so I’ve manually specified the injection point with “*”. I’ve included a cookie parameter that defines the required cookies, but the actual values of the cookies is irrelevant, since Burp will replace these based on the macro.
If it was a POST, you would need to include a similar –data parameter to sqlmap, where Burp would replace any CSRF tokens from hidden form fields. Finally, we have specified a proxy for sqlmap to use (Burp).

Running sqlmap, we start to see it doing it’s thing in the Burp Proxy window.

Screenshot a

That’s pretty much all there is to it.

One catch for the Session Handling Rule / macro configuration is that there isn’t a lot of evidence in the Burp tool (Intruder, Proxy, …) that anything is happening. If you are not getting the results that you would expect, the first thing to check is the Sessions Tracer, which can be found in the Session Handling Rules section. Clicking the “Open sessions tracer” button opens the Session Handling Tracer window. If a session handling rule is triggered, the actions for that rule will start to show up in the Tracer window. You can step through a macro, request by request, to see that everything is in order.

screenshot b


In this two part post, I’ve walked through setting up Burp Suite to do fuzzing inside CSRF-protected applications, both with Burp’s own Intruder tool and using an external tool (sqlmap).

Fuzzing and sqlmap inside CSRF-protected locations (Part 1)

- @dave_au

Hi all, David here. I was recently testing a web app for a client written in ASP.NET MVC. The developers are pretty switched on, and had used RequestValidation throughout the application in order to prevent CSRF. Further to this, in several locations, if there was a RequestValidation failure, they were destroying the current session and dropping the user back to the login form. Brutal.

I didn’t think that there would be any injection issues in the app, but I needed to test all the same and this presented an interesting challenge – how to fuzz or sqlmap on target parameters within the CSRF-protected pages of the application.

If I opted for a manual approach, the process would look like this:

  1. Login to the application
  2. Navigate to the page under test
  3. Switch Burp proxy to intercept
  4. Submit and intercept the request
  5. Alter the parameter under test in Burp, then release the request
  6. Observe results
  7. Goto 1

This would be incredibly slow and inefficient, and wouldn’t really provide a way of using external tools.

I scratched my head for a while and did some reading on Buby, Burp Extender and Sqlmap tamper scripting until I finally came across an article from Carstein at 128nops which led me to further reading by Dafydd on the Portswigger Web Security Blog. Turns out that Burp suite can do exactly what I needed, out of the box, so I thought I’d put together a step-by-step for how I solved the problem.

Fuzzing (with Intruder) inside CSRF

Note: Intruder has built-in recursive grep functionality that can be used in some circumstances to take the CSRF token from one response and use it in the following request (&c.)[1]. This wasn’t much good to me, since the session was being destroyed if CSRF validation failed.

In Burp terminology, you need to create a Session Handling Rule to make Intruder perform a sequence of actions (login, navigate to page under test) before each request.

Go to the “Options” tab, and select the “Sessions” sub-tab. “Session Handling Rules” is right at the top.


Click the “Add” button to create a new Session Handling Rule. The Session Handling Rule editor window opens. Give the rule a meaningful name, then click the “Add” button for “Rule Actions” and select “Run a macro” from the drop-down.


This opens the Session Handling Action Editor window…


In this window, click the “Add” button next to “Select macro:”. This opens the Macro Editor and Macro Recorder windows (shown a further on). Now that Burp is set up and waiting to record the sequence, switch over to your web browser. In a new window / session (making sure to delete any leftover session cookies), navigate to the login page, login, then navigate to the page within the application where you want to be doing fuzz testing. Once you are there, switch back over to Burp. The Macro Recorder should show the intercepted requests.


Select the requests that you want to use in the macro and click “OK”. This will close the Macro Recorder window.


In the Macro Editor window, give the macro a meaningful name and look through the “Cookies received”, “Derived Parameters” and “Preset Parameters” columns to check that Burp has analysed the sequence correctly. When you’re happy, you can test the macro out by clicking the “Test Macro” button. If everything looks alright, click “OK” to close the Macro Editor window.


Almost there.

Back in the Session Handling Action Editor window, you should be OK to leave the other options for updating parameters and cookies as-is. Click “OK” to exit out of here.

Now, back in the Session Handling Rule Editor window, you’ll see your macro listed in the Rule Actions…


Before you close this window, switch over to the “Scope” tab and alter the scope for the rule to be just for Intruder and “Include all URLs”. (If you want to be more specific, you could specify the URL that you wanted the rule to apply to, but I just put it in scope for all of Intruder, and remember to turn the rule off when I’m not using it. This becomes more important in Part 2 of this post.) Then close the Session Handling Rule Editor window.


Your session handling rule is now defined.

Next, go back over to Burp’s proxy and send the request that you want to fuzz over to Intruder in the usual way.


In Intruder’s “Position” tab, you’ll want to clear all of the injection points except for the one that you want to specifically fuzz test. Session cookies and any CSRF tokens (in cookies or hidden form fields) will be populated automatically by Intruder from the macro sequence.


Set your payloads and other options as required. If the application is sensitive to multiple concurrent sessions for the same user, you will need to reduce the number of threads to 1 in the “Options” tab.

Then start Intruder. You will almost certainly notice that Intruder runs slowly; this is to be expected when you consider that it is going through a new login sequence for each request.

To fuzz different parameters on the same page, just go back into “Positions” and choose the next target.

To fuzz parameters on a different page, you will probably need to go back into your Session Handling Rule and edit your macro (or define a new macro) that logs in and navigates to the new target page.

In part 2 of this post, I’ll step through a slightly different scenario where we use an external tool (sqlmap), proxied through Burp, with a Session Handling rule running on Burp’s Proxy.